Types, Symptoms, and Causes of Heart Disease
The heart is a vital organ that functions as a blood pump to meet the needs of oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. If the heart is disturbed, blood circulation in the body can be disrupted so maintaining heart health is very important to avoid various types of heart disease.
Types of Heart Disease
Currently, heart disease is still one of the leading causes of death in Indonesia and the world, for both men and women at all ages. There are several types of heart disease, including:
1. Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary heart disease is caused by a blockage in the arteries by a buildup of plaque or chemicals from food and drink. This makes blood clots in the arteries so that blood flow is disrupted.
2. Heart Rhythm Abnormalities
Abnormal heart rhythm or arrhythmia is a condition in which the heart rate is abnormal. The pace can feel too fast, too slow, or the rhythm is irregular. In general, heart rhythm abnormalities are classified as harmless, can cause severe symptoms and complications if the disease occurs due to a weak or damaged heart condition.
3. Congenital Heart Disease
Congenital heart disease is mostly caused by abnormalities in the structure and function of the heart since the baby is in the womb. ASD (Atrial Septal Defect) and VSD (Ventricular Septal Defect) or better known as a leaky heart are common congenital heart diseases. Congenital heart disease can occur due to genetic inheritance from one or both parents.
4. Abnormalities of heart valves or valves
Heart valve disorders are diseases that occur when the heart valves don't work as they should. Heart valves that don't work properly can cause blood to lead back and have difficulty getting out of the heart. This condition can also cause a small hole to form in the heart septum, which is called a leaky heart.
5. Heart Failure
Heart failure is a condition in which the heart cannot pump blood optimally so that the blood that is pumped does not carry enough oxygen and nutrients and it becomes difficult for the body to get what it needs.
Factors Causing Heart Disease Risk
Then what are the factors that can lead to the risk of heart disease? In general, there are two risk factors, namely risk factors that cannot be changed and can be changed. Risk factors that cannot be changed include age, gender, and genetics or heredity. Meanwhile, modifiable risk factors are hypertension, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, lack of physical activity, and excessive alcohol consumption.
Symptoms of Heart Disease
Heart disease that can occur in both adults and children makes it important to detect the symptoms of heart disease in order to avoid the risk of severe heart disease. Symptoms that can appear include chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, and fatigue quickly. As for the accompanying atypical symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and it is not uncommon to find patients with asymptomatic heart disease. This is because the patient suffers from diabetic neuropathy or nerve disorders due to diabetes.
If you experience these symptoms, visit the hospital immediately to get proper treatment and examination so that treatment can be carried out quickly and minimize the worst risks. To diagnose heart disease, the doctor will carry out a series of examinations such as anamnesis, physical examination, to supporting examinations such as an EKG or also known as a heart record, echocardiography (heart ultrasound) and a treadmill test if needed.
In preventing and maintaining heart health, changes in a healthy lifestyle are needed with "CERDIK" behavior, namely routine health checks, get rid of cigarette smoke, be diligent in physical activity for at least 30 minutes a day, have a healthy and balanced diet, get enough rest for at least 7 to 8 hours per day, and Manage stress.