febrile seizures in children
Febrile seizures are seizures that occur in children due to a drastic and sudden increase in body temperature. This condition usually occurs when the child has an infection. Febrile seizures generally occur in children aged six months to three years.
A febrile seizure is a response from a child's brain to a fever, and usually occurs on the first day of fever. However, once the fever reaches a high temperature level, the risk of seizures usually decreases. Febrile seizures may look terrible, but are generally harmless to children who experience them.
Some factors that can increase the risk of febrile seizures are:
Descendants. The risk of a child having a febrile seizure will be greater if there are family members who also experience the same thing.
Age. Children aged six months to five years are more at risk of developing febrile seizures than children aged outside that
Symptoms of a febrile seizure
Symptoms of febrile seizures vary, depending on the severity. In a level that is still classified as mild to moderate, the symptoms that appear are usually in the form of eyes that look wide open (wide). Meanwhile, at a higher level of severity, symptoms can include body spasms or tense muscles.
Febrile seizures often occur within 24 hours of infection in the child's body. When having a febrile seizure, your child may also show other symptoms, such as:
- The arms and legs move uncontrollably.
- Eyeballs seem to be looking up.
- Loss of consciousness.
- Foaming mouth.
Febrile seizures can be grouped into two types, namely simple febrile seizures and complex febrile seizures. In the case of a simple febrile seizure, the seizure usually lasts only a few seconds to 15 minutes. Although they occur throughout the body, seizures do not recur within 24 hours. Whereas in complex febrile seizures, the duration of the seizures lasts more than 15 minutes, and can occur more than once a day. Complex febrile seizures can occur in only part of the child's body.
Causes of Fever Seizures
Febrile seizures occur due to a sudden spike or increase in body temperature when a child has a fever. There are two things that can trigger it, namely:
Immunization. In some children, immunization can cause a fever that can trigger a febrile seizure.
Infection, be it a virus or bacteria.
Treatment and Prevention of Fever Seizures
In most cases, febrile seizures will go away on their own after a few minutes But to protect children from injury during seizures, parents can do the following:
- Lay the child on the floor. In infants, lie on the lap with the baby's face facing down. Do not hold the child's body.
- Tilt the child's body position so that vomit or saliva can come out of the oral cavity, and to prevent the tongue from clogging the respiratory tract.
- Loosen the child's clothes.
- Do not put anything in the child's mouth to prevent biting the tongue.
- Count the duration of febrile seizures and note the child's behavior during seizures. Tell these two things when consulting a doctor.
If the febrile seizure has subsided and the child does not need to be taken to the doctor at RSIA HERMINA Mutiara Bunda Salatiga, put the child in a cool room. Drowsiness is a natural thing that happens in children after having a febrile seizure. If the child has difficulty breathing, lay the child down and tilt the body and head. Then clean the oral cavity from the former vomit or saliva gently using a finger.
See a doctor immediately if a febrile seizure lasts more than 10 minutes or occurs repeatedly. Your doctor will prescribe medication to stop the seizures if the febrile seizure lasts longer than 15 minutes.
Giving paracetamol or ibuprofen when the child has just had a fever cannot prevent seizures. Your doctor may prescribe anticonvulsant (anticonvulsant) medications to prevent febrile seizures. However, this is rarely done because the risks of side effects outweigh the benefits.
Complications of Fever Seizure
Simple febrile seizures do not cause brain damage or mental disability. This condition is also not a sign of epilepsy. In children who have had a febrile seizure, the risk of having another febrile seizure is greater if:
- The lag between the onset of fever and the onset of a febrile seizure is quite short.
- The first febrile seizure occurs as a result of a low-grade fever.
- The patient was under 15 months of age when he had his first febrile seizure.
- One of the family members had a febrile seizure.