According to data from the WHO, stroke is the second largest contributor to death in 2018. The most risky stroke is in elderly people over 65 years old, but twenty-five percent of strokes occur in elderly people under 65 years old. Prevention is better done by recognizing the early symptoms of a stroke in order to get the right treatment.

Definition of Stroke

Stroke is a cerebrovascular disease. The definition according to WHO, Stroke is a condition in which rapidly developing clinical signs are found in the form of focal and global neurologic deficits, which can be severe and last for 24 hours or more and or can cause death, without any other obvious cause other than vascular. Stroke  occurs when the blood vessels in the brain are blocked or ruptured. As a result, part of the brain does not get the blood supply that carries the necessary oxygen so that it experiences cell/tissue death.

Risk Factors

Can be modified

  1. Hypertension
  2. Diabetes Mellitus
  3. Hypercholesterol
  4. Heart disease
  5. Obesity
  6. Unhealthy lifestyle

Cannot be modified

  1. Genetics / heredity
  2. Old age
  3. Gender (males are more at risk than females)
  4. Race (African-American)

Stroke Type

  1. Blockage / Ischemic
  2. Bleeding / Hemorrhagic

Stroke Symptoms

  1. Smile is not symmetrical (turned to one side)
  2. Difficulty swallowing water and choking when eating suddenly
  3. Weakness of half of the body suddenly
  4.  Speech is slurred / can't talk / can't understand words / speech doesn't connect suddenly
  5. Numbness or numbness or tingling in half of the body suddenly
  6. Myopic, the view of one or both eyes suddenly blurred
  7. Sudden severe headache and never felt before
  8. Impaired balance, such as a sense of spinning and impaired 

coordination such as tremors/shaking, staggering

Supporting investigation

  1. CT scan of the head
  2. MRI of the head
  3. ECG
  4. TCD and carotid doppler
  5. Laboratory examination


  1. Ischemic stroke: ·
  1. Improve blood flow to the brain (reperfusion) using rt-PA (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator). Terms of administration 3 - 4.5 hours after the onset of blockage
  2. Prevent thrombosis by administering antiplatelets or anticoagulants ·
  3. Neuroprotection / cytoprotection
  1. Hemorrhagic stroke ·
  1. Conservative management of bleeding with tranexamic acid
  2. Operative management as indicated


  1. Control blood pressure, cholesterol
  2. Do sports 5 times a week for at least 30 minutes
  3. Eat a balanced and healthy diet (multiple fruits, vegetables, reduce salt)
  4. Maintain ideal body weight
  5. Stop smoking and avoid cigarette smoke
  6. Do not consume alcohol
  7. Check and treat heart disease
  8. Reduce the risk of diabetes
  9. Get enough rest
  10. Manage stress
  11. Find knowledge about stroke

Handling and Treatment of Stroke at Home

  1. Medication regularly
  2. Take medicine as directed by the doctor
  3. Help the patient train the movement of muscles and joints
  4. Help the patient's needs
  5. Motivate the patient to remain enthusiastic in physical exercise
  6. Check blood pressure regularly

If you have experienced the initial symptoms of a stroke above, immediately consult a neurologist for further treatment and treatment

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