Pulmonary Tuberculosis (pulmonary TB) is a disease caused by systemic mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria so that it can affect all organs of the body with the most locations in the lungs which are usually the site of primary infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis is a lower respiratory tract infection that attacks lung tissue or the lung parenchyma by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli.

Transmission and Risk Factors :

Tubercolosis is passed from person to person by airborne transmission. Individuals become infected by talking, coughing, sneezing, laughing or singing, releasing large (larger than 100 u) and small (1 to 5 u) droplets. Large droplets remain, while smaller droplets are suspended in the air and blown away by susceptible individuals. Individuals who are at high risk for contracting tuberculosis are:

  1. Those in close contact with someone who has active TB
  2. Immunosuppressed individuals (Including the elderly, patients with cancer, those on corticosteroid therapy or those infected with HIV) 
  3. IV drug users and alcoholics
  4. Any individual without adequate health care (homeless, detainees, ethnic and racial minorities especially children under the age of 15 years or young adults between the ages of 15-44 years)
  5. Any individual with pre-existing medical disorders (e.g. diabetes, chronic renal failure, silicosis, nutritional disorders)
  6. Any individual living in an institution (e.g. long-term care facility, psychiatric institution, prison)
  7. Individuals living in substandard slum housing areas
  8. Health workers

Common symptoms

  1. Fever is not too high that lasts a long time, usually felt at night accompanied by night sweats. Sometimes fever attacks are like influenza and are intermittent.
  2. Decreased appetite and weight.
  3. Cough for more than 3 weeks (may be accompanied by blood).
  4. Feeling unwell (malaise), weakness.
  5. If there is fluid in the pleural cavity (wrapping the lungs), it can be. accompanied by complaints of chest pain.

Things that need to be considered

  1. If there is cough  2 weeks
  2. Chest pain
  3. Out of breath
  4. Fever

If you have any of the above symptoms, immediately consult an Internal Medicine Specialist or Lung Specialist

Pulmonary TB Treatment

  1. Regular control according to schedule
  2. Medication is taken according to the rules
  3. If there are complaints after taking TB drugs, do not stop yourself. Immediately consult a doctor. Because there may be side effects of drugs
  4. When coughing, cover the mouth with a tissue or handkerchief.
  5. If there is a cough of fresh blood, consult a doctor and avoid foods that stimulate coughing (dry food / too oily)

Diet (Food)

  1. Foods containing carbohydrates (rice, tubers, flour, bread)
  2. Animal Protein: eggs, fish, meat, milk.
  3. Vegetable Protein: tofu, tempeh, beans
  4. Fat (oil, butter/margarine)
  5. Vitamins and minerals (vegetables and fruit)
  6. Water

The things that need to be considered by patients with pulmonary TB:

  1. Pay attention to the cleanliness of the food you eat.
  2. Cook perfectly the food you cook, preferably food is stored in a closed state and wash your hands before eating.
  3. Just eat vegetables and fruit. However, avoid sour and gas-producing fruits such as: kedondong, pineapple, durian, jackfruit.
  4. Consumption of foods that contain high protein (eggs, milk, chicken, beef, and the addition of vegetable protein) to replace damaged cells.
  5. OAT (Anti Tuberculosis Drug) is taken on an empty stomach (related to food that has been metabolized approximately 2 hours after eating).
  6. There are no special taboos/bans for patients with pulmonary TB against food except for patients with pulmonary TB accompanied by other diseases (such as: Diabetes Mellitus, Liver Disease and others). In this situation, immediately consult nutrition.
  7. In patients with pulmonary TB who are breastfeeding, breast milk is still given to their babies by wearing masks / mouth coverings.

Do not hesitate to consult an Internal Medicine Specialist or Lung Specialist, nurses and other health workers regarding the cure for Pulmonary TB.

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