RECOGNIZING TUBERCULOSIS SYMPTOMS IN CHILDREN
In commemoration of the world tuberculosis (TBC) day on March 24, it turns out that TB disease is still an endemic disease in Indonesia, even Indonesia is in the third rank in the world as a country with the highest incidence of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This disease most often affects the lungs but can attack almost all organs of the body. TB disease can attack the bones, lining of the brain, lymph nodes, eyes, kidneys, heart, liver, intestines and skin. This disease is transmitted by adults with active TB through sputum droplets that come out when coughing, talking, sneezing or singing. Sputum splash containing TB germs when inhaled and into the lungs will cause TB infection. In contrast to TB in adults whose main symptom is a prolonged cough> 3 weeks, the symptoms of TB in children are very non-specific. When should we suspect that our baby may have TB? that is, if you get the following symptoms: 1. Long fever> 2 weeks or recurrent fever (generally not very high fever) 2. Decreased appetite, weight loss or not increasing in 2 consecutive months 3. Cough that persists or gets worse> 3 weeks 4. The child looks lethargic and does not look as active as usual 5. You can feel a lump in your neck (generally more than one) 6. Close contact with people with active pulmonary TB
In addition to general symptoms, special symptoms can also be found, namely a lump in the spine (gibbus), swelling of the joints (hip joints, knee joints, finger joints), seizures and decreased consciousness (tuberculosis of the lining of the brain), swollen heart or stomach. enlarged. But unfortunately none of the symptoms above are specific to TB symptoms, because other chronic diseases can also have symptoms like that. Therefore, if your baby shows symptoms like the above, take them immediately to consult a doctor. Before a child is diagnosed with TB, besides considering the clinical symptoms that appear, it is necessary to carry out several investigations. In contrast to TB in adults where the examination of germs on sputum is the main examination, in children the examination of the tuberculin test or the Mantoux test is the main examination. The Mantoux test is an examination by injecting a tuberculin solution (TB germ protein) under the skin (intrakutan). The test results can be read between 48-72 hours, if there is a lump on the injection site with a size of> 10 mm it is said to be a positive test result. Positive Mantoux test results show the body's reaction to germ proteins, meaning that the patient's body must have been previously infected with TB germs. Thus, before a child is said to have TB disease, we should first carry out an examination that proves that the child has been infected with TB (with the Mantoux test), because it is impossible for someone to become sick without previous infection. Another test that can help diagnose TB is a chest X-ray, this examination can confirm the direction of tuberculosis but cannot be used as the only test to determine a diagnosis of tuberculosis. Another thing that needs to be considered is if there is an adult TB sufferer at home, apart from treating him, we also have to check the children who live in the same house as the child is a vulnerable age group (especially if under five years). Conversely, if we find a child suffering from TB, we have to look for sources of infection in the vicinity. The source of TB transmission should be suspected in an adult with a prolonged cough (> 3 weeks), coughing up blood, significant weight loss, in this condition the adult should be asked to have his sputum checked for TB germs. With this approach, it is hoped that we can treat TB thoroughly. By paying attention to the various symptoms that may arise and important factors that play a role in TB transmission, it is hoped that parents can detect the possibility of their child being sick with TB early and immediately take him to a doctor's consultation.