Increasing HIV and AIDS Cases Among Adolescents
The increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in Indonesia continues to increase every month. This viral infection can reduce the ability of human immunity to fight foreign objects in the body, which, in the terminal stage of infection, can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Adolescents are more vulnerable to HIV infection due to various social factors, namely limited access and knowledge about sexual education, especially reproductive organs, minimal explanation from parents about sexuality, trauma received in the past, as well as high curiosity. As a result, these teenage children will make decisions that tend to be unsafe and pose a high risk to their physical health.
The 15–25-year age group, which is categorized as teenagers, is the group most frequently infected with HIV. Based on data from the Ministry of Health as of 2022, only 76 percent of people with HIV know their status, 41 percent of people with HIV receive treatment, and only 16 percent of people with HIV receive treatment. The virus is suppressed. It is very unfortunate that HIV transmission in adolescents can be caused by:
1. Injection drug use
2. Casual sex, especially with people of the same sex
3. Through a blood transfusion
4. From mother to baby
5. Oral sex
The importance of knowledge related to HIV also needs to be conveyed on an ongoing basis. Collaboration between various parties is very important to expand the education and information provided. That is why education about HIV/AIDS needs to be carried out in schools and outside of school so that teenagers can know the dangers of HIV.
The importance of preventing HIV transmission can be determined using the ABCDE method, namely:
a. Abstinence, meaning absence of sex or not having sex, is for those who are not married, and when getting married, it is important to check HIV status with your partner so that prevention of HIV transmission from mother and child can be minimized.
B: Be faithful, be loyal to your partner, and not change partners.
Condoms prevent sexual transmission by providing protection.
D: Drug No, do not use illegal drugs, and avoid sharing needles and non-sterile needles.
E: Education provides education and information related to HIV.
This is why it is very important to provide sexual education and reproductive organ health to children from an early age. It's not about taboo; it's more about how the next generation of young people can get the right information and access so they don't risk contracting HIV.
If you need more complete information about HIV and AIDS, you can ask an internal medicine doctor at Hermina Hospital, Depok.