CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE IS NOT A COMMON DISEASE, WATCH THE CAUSES!
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease characterized by airflow obstruction in the airways that cannot fully return to normal. This airflow limitation is progressive. This is usually caused by significant exposure to noxious particles and gases.
WHAT CAN CAUSE COPD? The most common risk factor for COPD is smoking. However, non-smokers can also develop COPD because COPD is the result of long-term exposure to harmful particles or gases, accompanied by host factors such as genetic factors, airway hypersensitivity (excessive allergic reaction), and poor lung growth since childhood.
COPD risk factors:
-Smoke -Air pollution in the house -Job exposure - Outdoor air pollution -Genetic factor -Age and gender factors -Lung growth and development factors -Socio-economic status -History of asthma or airway hyperreactivity -Chronic bronchitis -Infection
WHAT ARE COPD SYMPTOMS? The main complaint of COPD is of course related to breathing problems. This respiratory complaint must be examined carefully because it is often considered a common symptom of the aging process.
- Chronic cough is a cough that comes and goes for 3 months that doesn't go away with treatment -Chronic phlegm, sometimes the patient states only continuous phlegm without coughing - Shortness of breath, especially when doing activities. Often patients have adapted to shortness of breath that is slowly progressive so that this shortness of breath is not complained of.
HOW IS COPD DIAGNOSIS ENFORCED? The purpose of establishing a COPD diagnosis is to determine the degree of airflow limitation. This airflow limitation has an impact on the patient's health status and the risks that will occur in the future. The risks in question include the possibility of exacerbations (acute attacks), whether or not to be hospitalized, even to the possibility of respiratory failure that can cause death. Finally, this risk will be a reference for doctors in determining therapy. Airflow limitation can be detected by spirometry. Spirometry is an examination performed to objectively measure lung capacity or function in patients with medical indications. In addition, radiological examinations such as chest X-rays can also be performed. In patients with acute exacerbations, blood gas analysis can be performed to determine the possibility of respiratory failure in the patient.
HOW IS COPD TREATMENT AND PREVENTION? Quitting smoking is the key to COPD treatment and prevention. In addition, the doctor will provide pharmacological therapy such as administering bronchodilators, corticosteroids, mucolytics, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory drugs based on the clinical degree of the patient. These drugs have the function of relieving and controlling which means that COPD treatment is not only given in the acute phase or exacerbation, but is also required for maintenance. The use of drugs appropriately and according to the doctor's advice can prevent exacerbations. In addition, doctors will provide education to adjust activity limitations, reduce risk factor exposure, nutritional balance, and rehabilitation so that COPD can be controlled.
WHEN TO A DOCTOR? If you have a long cough accompanied by phlegm and shortness of breath, immediately consult a doctor, even though these symptoms are not specific to COPD, but consultation with an expert is needed to make a diagnosis, rule out other possibilities, and get the right therapy. by : dr. Selvia Oktaviani Agustine Reviewed by : dr. Hery Irawan, SpP (source: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). 2019. Pocket Guide to CPOD Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention.)