Polio Disease Causes and Symptoms

Polio Disease Causes and Symptoms

Polio is a type of disease that needs to be watched out for. Apart from being fatal, it can also spread quickly and attack all ages, but transmission is most rapid in children under 5 years of age. Patients can experience neurological, respiratory, and permanent paralysis due to the disease caused by this viral infection.

Preventive measures are urgently needed considering that the virus that causes this disease is very easy to spread. Polio is a disease that must be avoided because the consequences for sufferers are extremely dangerous. 



Until now, preventive measures such as raising public awareness about this one disease have been implemented. The virus that causes polio spreads easily through the mouth and inhalation, then spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream.

Children who play with sufferers are very easily infected. Direct contact with patients, sharing cutlery, or splashes of saliva can act as intermediaries for the spread of the virus. The following groups are very susceptible to contracting and suffering from polio :

  • People who live in areas that are unhygienic or have poor sanitation

  • Pregnant mother

  • Health workers

  • Families where one of their members is infected

  • Travel to infected areas



Patients are frequently unaware of the diseases caused by this virus. At the beginning of the infection and the development of the virus in the body, no signs appeared. The fact that it is frequently too late makes handling difficult. Patients are only aware that they have contracted the disease after an infection occurs, which can have negative consequences and worsen their health. 

Meanwhile, from the time of entry to the time of infection, the patient is very likely to transmit it to others. People around them were unable to predict because the patient displayed no symptoms. Based on the symptoms, there are two types of polio :

a. Non-paralysis

This first type is considered less dangerous because it can heal itself after the patient has been sick for 1–10 days. In addition, non-paralysis also does not cause paralysis. Symptoms of the disease take a long time to appear from the first day the virus enters the body, which is around 6–20 days. Patients usually experience:

  • Fever

  • Sore throat

  • Headache

  • Numbness in an arm or leg

  • Vomiting

  • Weak muscles

  • Stiffness in the neck and part of the back


b. Paralysis

This second type needs to be watched out for because it can be fatal. Patients can experience permanent paralysis of the nerves, brain, and spine. In contrast to the non-paralysis type, the second one is detected quite quickly because symptoms have appeared in just one week. Signs of the attack of the disease are :

  • Legs and arms feel weak.

  • Reflexes on any part of the body are lost.

  • Tense and sore muscles 

Patients who seek medical attention immediately are more likely to survive paralysis. During the examination, the doctor not only examines the physical but also takes several samples, such as sputum, feces, and fluid in the brain.

Until now, polio was a type of disease to be wary of because there was no effective medicine to cure it. As an initial treatment, the doctor will advise the patient to drink more and will administer various medications. The drug is not intended to cure, but rather to alleviate symptoms. 

The type given can be in the form of antibiotics, pain relievers, and antispasmodics, which function as muscle relaxants. To treat patients who have respiratory problems, the action taken is to install a breathing apparatus.


How Can Polio Be Prevented ? 

The impact that can be suffered by polio patients is very fatal. Therefore, taking actions to avoid and prevent the spread of the virus is very important. The problem of polio is still an issue that attracts the attention of many parties. In addition to health campaigns through the National Immunization Week (PIN), preventive measures are often carried out, namely by administering vaccines. The aim of giving the vaccine is to increase the body's immunity so that the polio virus does not attack easily. 

Friends of Hermina can speak with a pediatrician at the hospital about polio prevention. Hermina's closest friend or Hermina's best friend can also consult online with a hospital specialist. Hermina with the Hello Hermina app

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