Tuberculosis, Symptoms, Causes, and Appropriate Treatment

Tuberculosis, Symptoms, Causes, and Appropriate Treatment


Many are mistaken because they say cough and tuberculosis are the same disease. Even though they are both coughs, they have big differences. TB (tuberculosis) is an infectious and deadly disease with a high patient mortality rate caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although it most often attacks the lungs, this disease can also attack the lymph nodes, heart, central nervous system, and brain.

As a type of infectious and deadly disease, TB is ranked second in the world, and Indonesia is ranked in the top five in Southeast Asia as the country with the most TB patients.


Causes, Symptoms, and Methods of Treatment

Indonesia is one of the countries in Asia that has the highest number of TB patients. Its rapid transmission through the air must make Hermina's friends and others alert because this disease is considered deadly if there is no proper and fast treatment. The treatment period is also quite long and must be consistent. To find out more about TB, here are the facts that hermina friends should know :

1. Cause

The cause of TB is the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, which attacks the lungs. Transmission of this disease occurs when a person breathes air contaminated with these bacteria. TB patients expel the bacteria in the form of mucus splashes when they cough and sneeze.

Friends of Hermina need to know that people who are infected with the bacteria may not immediately pass it on to other people. People with active pulmonary tuberculosis have a big chance of spreading the bacteria to other people.

2. Symptoms

In general, the most visible symptom of this disease is the prolonged cough suffered by TB patients. The cough is different from the usual cough because of its long duration. Besides that, there are other symptoms that Hermina friends should be aware of, including :

  • Coughing up blood

  • A pain in the chest

  • Shortness of breath

  • A cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer

  • Easily tired

  • Significant weight loss

  • Loss of appetite

  • Fever

  • Chills

  • Sweating at night

3. Risk Factors

Everyone has the opportunity to be exposed to this contagious and deadly disease. Children can also be carriers of tuberculosis. Given this situation, it is reasonable to conclude that there are several factors that can increase a person's risk of contracting this disease.

Therefore, it is important for Friends of Hermina to know what the risk factors are, because even having just one does not mean that Friends of Hermina will immediately get TB. These risk factors are the only conditions that can increase the chances of Sahabat Hermina getting TB.

The following are risk factors that Hermina friends should know :

  • People with low immunity, a history of diabetes, or HIV

  • People who are close to or who care for TB sufferers

  • People who make direct contact with sufferers

  • People who live in unclean environments with poor ventilation systems.

  • Current smoker

  • People who consume excessive alcohol

  • People undergo cancer treatment.

  • Doctors or people who are nurses who treat TB patients

  • People who consume drugs

  • People who come to places that have a high TB outbreak rate.

  • People taking drugs used to treat autoimmune diseases.

4. Method of Treatment

Even though it is classified as deadly, TB can be cured by taking the right treatment and following the rules given by the doctor. The treatment period for this disease lasts 6–12 months, and you have to take TB medicine regularly; you can't stop even for a day.

5. Complications

If TB sufferers do not get proper and fast treatment, it can cause bad things. Bacteria that attack the lungs can spread to other parts of the body. The following are complications that may arise due to TB disease if there is no prompt treatment :

  • Back pain

  • Swelling of the lining of the brain (meningitis)

  • Problems with the liver and kidneys

  • Abnormalities of the heart (cardiac tamponade)

  • Damage to the joints

6. Risk of Anti-Tuberculosis Resistance

Generally, after a few weeks of treatment, the patient will feel better. However, this condition must be watched out for because it does not mean that the TB bacteria have disappeared. Therefore, after undergoing intensive treatment, the patient must continue to undergo treatment until the disease is completely resolved.

If treatment is interrupted or incomplete, the TB bacteria can reactivate and attack other parts of the body even more viciously. Incomplete use of drugs can also cause bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics. This condition is often called MDR TB, which usually makes it more difficult to treat because there are fewer anti-tuberculosis drugs that can kill this bacterium.

TB is so terrible that Friends of Hermina and others must be more vigilant, especially if you have been exposed to it and stop the treatment period midway. Therefore, it is better to complete TB treatment completely, take good care of the environment, and live a healthy lifestyle so that you are not easily exposed to and infected with tuberculosis bacteria.

Friends of Hermina can consult with a pulmonary specialist at the hospital about TB disease. Hermina's closest friend or Hermina's best friend can also consult online with a hospital specialist. Hermina through the Hello Hermina application.


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