All About Diabetes Mellitus

All About Diabetes Mellitus

Diet for People with Diabetes Mellitus

The principle of eating arrangements for people with diabetes is almost the same as the recommendation for eating for the general public, namely a balanced diet and in accordance with the calorie and nutritional needs of each individual. The principle of regulation of diet in DM is 3J, namely, Type, Amount and Schedule of food.

- Type: Choose food ingredients by paying attention to the glycemic load. The effect of the amount of carbohydrates in their ability to raise blood sugar. It is recommended to consume complex carbohydrates (fruit vegetables, nuts, oatmeal).

Glycemic Load < 10: low (wheat bread, carrots, pumpkin, apples, oranges, pears, melons)
Glycemic Load 10-19: medium (papaya, banana, boiled potatoes, vermicelli, spaghetti)
Glycemic Load >20: high (rice, baked potato, French fries)

Types of food that meet the principles of balanced nutrition (carbohydrates, protein and fat) and the distribution of meal portions according to the principle of the T dinner plate.
- The amount of food must be appropriate, according to the needs of each individual. It is recommended to eat small portions and often. A person's number or needs are influenced by weight, physical activity, age and complications.
- Schedule, must eat regularly (time discipline), 3 main meals and 3 interludes, to control blood glucose levels.


Diet Tips for People with Diabetes Mellitus
There are several tips to help people with diabetes improve their diet. Among them:
Limit sources of simple sugars, such as syrups, sugar, honey, and sweet cakes. Sugar in seasoning is still okay.
Choose high-fiber foods, such as fruits, vegetables, cereals
When breaking the fast, the consumption of giving appetizers first, such as dates, fruit, fruit juice and mineral water. Next, consume the main meal after praying maghrib so that the digestive system is not shocked.

Recommendations for Physical Activity for People with Diabetes Mellitus

When we do physical activity, the body uses glucose in the blood as energy. The following are recommendations for physical activity for people with diabetes mellitus:

Frequency: 3 times a week with no more than 2 consecutive days
Medium intensity
Duration: aerobic exercise at least 150 minutes/week. Moderate or vigorous intensity (brisk walking, leisurely walking, leisurely cycling, jogging, and swimming).
Type: any form of aerobic exercise including brisk walking

Arif, A.B. et al. Glycemic Index Value of Food Products and Factors Affecting It. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 2014. Vol. 32 No. 3:91-99
Handayani, D. et al. 2018. Stay Healthy During Ramadan Fasting for Diabetes. UB Press
Indonesian Ministry of Health. 2020. Stay Productive, Prevent, and Overcome Diabetes Mellitus. InfoDATIN. ISSN 2442-7659
Indonesian Ministry of Health. 2019. Can Diabetics Fast?. Jakarta: P2PTM Ministry of Health RI
Perkeni. 2015. Guidelines for the Management of Type 2 DM in Adults in the Month of Ramadan. Malang: Perkeni
Rahadiyanti, A. 2020. Setting the Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Carbohydrate Counting in Diabetes Mellitus.


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