TBC as an Infectious Disease, We Need to Be Aware of and We Prevent it

TBC as an Infectious Disease, We Need to Be Aware of and We Prevent it

President Joko Widodo once said in a closed meeting on July 21, 2020 on the Presidential Secretariat's Youtube channel that TB in Indonesia is ranked third with the highest number of TB in the world after India and China. In Indonesia, 165,000 patients died from TB in 2017. Then, the number of patients who died from TB in 2018 reached 98,000 patients. Therefore, let's get to know more deeply what TB is so that we can be more vigilant and can prevent it.


Tuberculosis or TB itself is a potentially serious infectious disease and generally attacks the lungs as a result of infection from the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Launching the official website of the Ministry of Health, in Indonesia, TB is known as a plural disease with three letters, wet lungs, and lung spots. TB germs most often attack the lungs. However, this disease can also infect other organs such as the lymph nodes, bones, brain, and skin.


TB causes

TB can spread when someone inhales droplets (droplets) when someone with TB coughs, talks, sneezes, laughs or sings. TB transmission is not as fast as flu and colds. However, there are several groups that are at high risk of contracting TB:


1. People who live in dense and slum settlements.

2. Medical staff who often treat TB patients.

3. Old people (elderly) and children.

4. Drug users

5. Patients with advanced kidney disease.

6. People who experience malnutrition.

7. People with alcohol addiction.

8. Smoker

9. People with weak immune systems, for example people with HIV/AIDS, cancer, diabetes, people undergoing organ transplants, and so on.

10. People who are on immunosuppressive drug therapy, for example people with lupus, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, or Crohn's disease.


TB symptoms

Quoted from the website page of the Ministry of Health, Directorate General of Health Services. In latent TB, sufferers generally do not experience symptoms. Generally, new sufferers realize they have tuberculosis after undergoing examinations for other diseases. Meanwhile, for people with active TB, the symptoms that appear can be:


1. Cough that lasts a long time (3 weeks or more).

2. Cough is usually accompanied by phlegm or coughing up blood.

3. Chest pain when breathing or coughing.

4. Night sweats.

5.      Loss of appetite.

6.      Weight loss.

7. Fever and chills.

8.      Fatigue


Besides attacking the lungs, TB can also attack other than the lungs. The following are examples of symptoms that arise due to extrapulmonary TB disease, according to the organs affected:

1. Swollen lymph nodes when exposed to gland tuberculosis.

2. Bloody urine in kidney tuberculosis.

3. Back pain in spinal tuberculosis.

4. Headaches and seizures when exposed to TB in the brain.

5. Severe stomach pain if you have intestinal tuberculosis.


Symptoms of Tuberculosis in Children

Meanwhile, the symptoms of TB in children tend to be more difficult to recognize. This is because the symptoms are not typical so they are often mistaken for symptoms of other diseases.

The following are symptoms that may be found in children with TB, namely:

1. Persistent cough for more than 2 weeks.

2. Losing weight in 2 months or failure to thrive.

3. Swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy).

4. Constant fever for more than 2 weeks.

5. The child looks weak (malaise) and is less active.

6.      Symptoms do not improve despite being given antibiotics and nutrition.


There are several tips to help protect and prevent TB disease for friends and family from infection with germs according to the promkes.kemkes.go.id page:

1.Stay at home. Don't go to work or school or sleep in a room with other people during the first few weeks of treatment for active TB

2. Ventilate the room. TB germs spread more easily in small closed spaces where there is no air. If the room's ventilation is still lacking, open a window and use a fan to blow indoor air outside.

3. Cover your mouth with a mask. Wearing a mask to cover your mouth at any time is an effective TB prevention measure. Don't forget to throw away the mask regularly.

4. Spit should be in a certain place that has been given a disinfectant (soapy water).

5. BCG immunization is given to babies aged 3-14 months

6. Avoid cold air.

7. Try to get enough sunlight and fresh air into the bed.

8. Drying mattresses, pillows and beds, especially in the morning.

9. All items used by sufferers must be separated as well as washing them and may not be used by other people.

10. Food should be high in carbohydrates and high in protein.


If Hermina's friends and family or friends' children experience symptoms of TB, especially if they live together or have close contact with TB sufferers, immediately go to Hermina Hospital or the nearest health facility to be treated by a doctor immediately. From early diagnosis and treatment of TB disease can help reduce the possibility of complications.

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