The Most Common Vision Disorders

The Most Common Vision Disorders

Visual disturbances and vision loss can occur at all ages, in toddlers, school age, productive age and the elderly.  This visual impairment can interfere with activities, and endanger the patient so that it can reduce the quality of life and can even lead to depression in sufferers.

Some of the most common visual disturbances are refractive disorders, cataracts, eye infections, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other eye disorders.

1. Refractive Error is a condition in which light entering the eye cannot be focused clearly. There are 4 types of refractive errors, namely myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), presbyopia (nearsightedness in the elderly), and astigmatism (astigmatism).

2. Conjunctivitis or Red Eyes It is irritation or inflammation of the conjunctiva, which covers the white part of the eyeball. This condition can be caused by allergies or a bacterial or viral infection. Conjunctivitis can be highly contagious and spreads through contact with eye secretions from an infected person. Symptoms include eye redness, itching, and watering. It can also cause discharge or crusting around the eyes.

3. Cataract is a visual disturbance caused by the lens becoming cloudy. This disorder cannot be cured with the use of glasses. Cataracts can occur on one side or both sides of the eye. This disease, if left unchecked, can cause blindness in old age. Complaints are usually about decreased vision, such as seeing clouds or fog or glare when seeing light. This visual impairment can be removed by undergoing cataract surgery.

4. Macular Degeneration or Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) frequently manifests in the elderly with initial symptoms of blurry vision beginning in the center of vision. AMD is divided into two types, dry and wet. AMD Dry eye occurs gradually due to the death of retinal cells. Wet-type AMD occurs due to the growth of abnormal blood vessels into the macula, resulting in bleeding or fluid buildup in the macula and causing visual disturbances. AMD risk factors are genetic factors, smoking, and old age. Patients who have risk factors must be vigilant so that they can be treated properly before complications lead to blindness.

5. Diabetic retinopathy Diabetes is often suffered by the elderly. This systemic disease can trigger retinopathy or damage to the retinal layer. Symptoms of retinopathy include blurred vision, floaters (dark patches of vision), eye pain (red eye), and blurred vision.

6. Glaucoma eye disease that occurs due to blockage of the flow of fluid in the eyeball, so that the fluid builds up and increases the pressure in the eyeball. Glaucoma has several types: primary angle-closure glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, and congenital (congenital from birth). Open-angle glaucoma is more common than angle-closure, especially at the age of >49 years. High pressure on the eyeball can cause damage to the optic nerve so that it loses its visual field. Symptoms of open-angle glaucoma are like looking in a hallway so that the right side is not visible. If this disease continues without treatment, then vision can be completely lost.

Here's how to prevent eye disease by screening for eye disorders:

  • Even though he has no complaints, his eyes are checked every six months and once a year.
  • People with diabetes should have an eye exam every 6 months.
  • Wear sunglasses to protect yourself from UV rays.
  • Quit smoking
  • Eat healthy food.
  • Maintain normal blood pressure.
  • Controlling blood sugar if you have diabetes

Some common symptoms of eye disease to watch out for:

  • Sudden eye pain accompanied by redness, nausea, and vomiting
  • Blurred vision that occurs suddenly
  • Seeing the floating black spot
  • Double vision
  • Vision is like a black curtain
  • The field of view is getting narrower.
  • Gradual vision loss and distorted vision
  • It's like seeing fog, seeing haloes in lights at night, and fading colors.
  • Blurred vision in a patient with diabetes

If you suffer from these symptoms, do not hesitate to immediately go to the nearest health facility to be examined so that no further complications occur.

Created by: Dr. Johanna Regina

Reviewed by: Dr. Bella Pratiwi Sudjana, Sp.M.


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  2. Addis VM, DeVore HK, Summerfield ME. Acute visual changes in the elderly. Clinics in geriatric medicine. 2013;29(1):165-80.
  3. Jennifer E. Eye care for older people. Community Eye Health Journal. 2008;21.
  4. Eye care in the elderly. Australian Journal for General Practitioners. 2014;43:447-50.
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