Beware Of skin Diseases That Attack Your Little One

Beware Of skin Diseases That Attack Your Little One

The term "Hand Foot and Mouth Disease," or "HFMD" in Indonesian, refers to a viral infection that results in lesions on the skin and mucosa that show as red spots or fluid-filled blisters in the mouth, hands, and soles of feet. All ages can be affected by this condition, although children under the age of five are typically the ones who are affected.

What led to it?

The viruses that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) belong to the genus Enterovirus. Coxsackievirus (CA16) and Human Enterovirus 71 (HEV 71) are the enterovirus species most usually responsible for HFMD.


What signs are present?

HFMD typically starts with a fever, sore throat or difficulty swallowing, loss of appetite, and pain or malaise. Red spots that typically start at the rear of the roof of the mouth and spread to the gums, tongue, and inner cheeks after one to two days of fever develop into canker sores in the oral cavity. The palms of the hands and feet then develop red spots 1-2 days later. These skin lesions might take the shape of fluid-filled blisters or crimson rashes. Although the oral cavity, hands, and feet are the primary sites of the mucous membrane and skin problems in HFMD, the rash can also develop on the legs, arms, buttocks, and skin around the genitalia. Adults and those with strong immune systems are more likely to contract the HFMD virus but not have any symptoms (asymptomatic). Although not a group of HFMD patients, this group has the capacity to carry the virus and spread it.


Is HFMD a threat?

In actuality, HFMD is self-limiting and has the capacity to recover. Although the lesions in the mouth are typically unpleasant, the symptoms are typically mild, which makes it difficult for children to eat and drink, which can lead to dehydration. Numerous publications discuss cases of severe HFMD, including meningitis (inflammation of the brain's lining) and encephalitis, which necessitate special care or even lead to patient death. According to numerous research, the strain that most frequently results in severe HFMD is HEV 71. Numerous other case reports demonstrate that HFMD can lead to problems such as toenail and fingernail separation several weeks following the acute phase of HFMD. However, this condition is transient, and nails can regrow.


HFMD  Is it Spreadable?

Particularly in crowded settings with poor cleanliness, HFMD is highly contagious. In the initial week of their disease, HFMD patients are typically quite contagious. Even after the symptoms and telltale indicators of infection have subsided, some patients continue to spread the virus days or even weeks later.


How does it spread?

HFMD patients can transmit the HFMD virus through feces, damaged skin sores, throat secretions/fluid (spit, phlegm), and snot. The HFMD virus is easily spread through close contact with the patient (such as talking, hugging, kissing), through the air (such as sneezing, coughing), through the patient's feces (such as changing diapers), and through objects or surfaces (such as holding door handles, table surfaces, furniture, etc.) that have been exposed to the virus.


How is the Therapy going?

There is no specific treatment for HFMD; instead, the symptoms it causes are managed symptomatically. Fever and pain can be treated with paracetamol. A child's temperature can also be lowered by applying warm compresses and drinking more often. Gargling with mouthwash helps ease pain brought on by mouth sores in older kids.


How can it be avoided?

There is currently no vaccine known to prevent HFMD. Therefore, to stop future transmission, HFMD patients should be kept apart. Unusual occurrences/outbreaks can happen anywhere, although they are more common in some Southeast Asian nations, particularly in enclosed and crowded settings like schools, orphanages, dorms, Islamic boarding schools, and daycare centers.

Transmission must be avoided through the practice of pure and healthy living (PHBS). that is, by :

  • washing your hands (before eating, after using the restroom, after changing diapers, and before touching anything that is dirty
  • When sneezing and coughing, cover your mouth and nose
  • Do not carelessly throw saliva
  •  Never, ever touch your face, eyes, nose, or mouth
  • Use a mask

Advice on home care?

  • not to worry
  • Keep sick children apart from healthy ones to avoid spreading infection
  • Take a shower and rinse your mouth to stay clean 
  • numerous drinkers
  • Wash toys frequently with warm water and soap.
  • Use separate drinking and eating utensils.
  • If you are sick, refrain from kissing or hugging.
  • Table tops and door handles should be disinfected.


Avoid these Foods?

Foods with acid (such as orange juice), salt, and heat should be avoided. It is advised to drink lots of water, consume cold meals and beverages (ice cream, frozen yogurt), and eat soft foods like soup if you have tongue ache.



HFMD is a viral infection that typically affects infants and young children. It is characterized by a brief fever lasting one to two days, followed by the development of red spots and vesicles on the hands, feet, and oral cavity. Unless there are symptoms of dehydration, seizures, diminished consciousness, or paresis/paralysis of body parts, this disease is self-limiting and no particular medication is required.

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